Grid forming power converters. Concepts, implementation and analysis


Pedro Rodriguez, Xiongfei Wang and Rolando Burgos


Power converters have a relevant impact on the stability and reliability of modern electrical grids. In this tutorial, we will review several approaches for implementing grid-forming power converters, discussing about their operation principle, controllers and main features. Moreover, we will assess the services provided to the grid by some preferred implementations (inertia emulation, power oscillations damping, voltage/frequency regulation, power quality improvement, island operation, black-start, …). Finally, we will present several analysis techniques to evaluate the impact of grid-forming converters on the grid performance, paying special attention to dynamic analysis and stability, and providing rules and guidelines for tuning controllers.